Geiselstellungen von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit

639 Dokumente in 'Geiselstellungen von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit'
Name
 
-0065 Geiselstellung an Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus durch den iberischen König Artokes
Name
-0065 Geiselstellung an Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus durch den iberischen König Artokes
Vorausgegangener Konflikt
3. Mithridatischer Krieg
Datum/Zeitangabe
-65
Inhalt/Kommentar
Auf der Verfolgung des Mithridates unterwarf Pompeius mehrere Völker zwischen Schwarzem und Kaspischem Meer, darunter auch die Iberer. Von ihrem König Artokes empfing er Geiseln. Im Triumphzug wurden diese präsentiert. Bei Appian bleibt unklar, von welchen der anderen Völker ebf. Geiseln oder nur Gefangene präsentiert wurden. Bei Plutarch fällt auf, dass es aus der Reihe der Unterworfenen die besiegten, aber im Amt belassenen Könige waren, von denen nach Plutarch Geiseln im Triumphzug mitgeführt wurden. Andere Völker und Gebiete wurden z.B. anderen Fürsten unterstellt, was offensichtlich eine Geiselstellung unnötig machte. Die Gesamtzahl der Geiseln im Triumph ist mit 324 beziffert, wieviele davon auf die Iberer entfallen bleibt offen. Ebenso ist nicht sicher, ob die Geiseln ebenfalls zu den laut Appian, Mithr. 117 freigelassenen gehörten, oder ob tatsächlich nur Gefangene zurückgegeben worden waren.
Quellenangabe
 
#1
Quellenangabe
Cass. Dio. 37.2.5-7.
Quellentext
[5] πεζῇ περαιούμενοι ἀπέθανον: συχνοὶ δὲ καὶ κατὰ τὰς ὕλας σκεδασθέντες ἡμέρας μέν τινας ἀπὸ τῶν δένδρων ὑπερυψήλων ὄντων ἀποτοξεύοντες διεγένοντο, ἔπειτα δὲ καὶ αὐτοὶ ὑποτμηθέντων τῶν δένδρων ἐφθάρησαν. καὶ οὕτω καὶ ὁ Ἀρτώκης ἐπεκηρυκεύσατο μὲν αὖθις τῷ Πομπηίῳ καὶ δῶρα [6] ἔπεμψεν: ἐκείνου δὲ δὴ ταῦτα μέν, ὅπως τὰς σπονδὰς ποιήσεσθαι 1 ἐλπίσας μὴ περαιτέρω ποι προχωρήσῃ, λαβόντος, τὴν δ᾽ εἰρήνην οὐχ ὁμολογήσαντος δώσειν ἂν μὴ τοὺς παῖδάς οἱ ὁμήρους [7] προαποστείλῃ, χρόνον τινὰ ἐπέσχε, μέχρις οὗ οἱ Ῥωμαῖοι καὶ τὸν Πέλωρον διαβατόν πῃ τοῦ θέρους γενόμενον οὐ χαλεπῶς, ἄλλως τε καὶ μηδενὸς κωλύοντος, ἐπεραιώθησαν. οὕτω δὲ δὴ τούς τε παῖδας αὐτῷ ἔπεμψε, καὶ μετὰ τοῦτο καὶ συνηλλάγη.
Übersetzungen
[5] Many others scattered through the woods and survived for a few days, while they shot their arrows from the trees, which were exceedingly tall; but soon the trees were cut down under them and they also were slain. So Artoces again made overtures to Pompey, and sent gifts. [6] These the other accepted, in order that the king in the hope of securing a truce might not proceed any farther; but he would not agree to grant peace till the petitioner should first send to him his children as hostages. [7] Artoces, however, delayed for a time, until in the course of the summer the Pelorus became fordable in places, and the Romans crossed over without any difficulty, particularly since no one hindered them; then at last he sent his children to Pompey and concluded a treaty.
 
#2
Quellenangabe
Flor. epit. 1.40.28.
Quellentext
[28] At in septentrione Scythicum iter tamquam in mari stellis secutus Colchos cecidit, ignovit Hiberiae, pepercit Albanis. Regem horum Oroden positis sub ipso Caucaso castris iussit in plana descendere, at Arthocen, qui Hiberis imperabat, obsides liberos dare; Oroden etiam muneravit, ultro ab Albania sua lectum aureum et alia dona mittentem.
Übersetzungen
Aber im Norden folgte er dem Weg zu den Skythen gleichwie auf einem Meer im Bereich der Sterne und metzelte die Kolcher nieder, verzieh den Hiberern und schonte die Albaner. Deren König Ordes ließ er, nachdem er ein Lager gerade am Fuße des Kaukasus hatte errichten lassen, die Ebenen hinabsteigen, aber Artokes, der den Hiberern Befehle erteilte, ließ er auch seine Kinder als Geiseln stellen; sogar Orodes beschenkt er; von sich aus schickte dieser aus seinem Herrschaftsbereich Albanien ein goldenes Bett und andere Geschenke.
 
#3
Quellenangabe
App. Mithr. 103.
Quellentext
[103] καὶ τάδε μὲν ἦν ἀμφὶ τὸν Μιθριδάτην, ὁ δὲ Πομπήιος αὐτὸν εὐθὺς μὲν ἐπὶ τῇ φυγῇ μέχρι Κόλχων ἐδίωξε, μετὰ δέ, οὐδαμὰ δόξας αὐτὸν οὔτε τὸν Πόντον οὔτε τὴν Μαιώτιδα λίμνην περιελεύσεσθαι, οὐδὲ μεγάλοις ἔτι πράγμασιν ἐγχειρήσειν ἐκπεσόντα, τοὺς Κόλχους ἐπῄει καθ᾽ ίστορίαν τῆς Ἀργοναυτῶν καὶ Διοσκούρων καὶ Ἡρακλέους ἐπιδημίας, τὸ πάθος μάλιστα ἰδεῖν ἐθέλων ὃ Προμηθεῖ φασὶ γενέσθαι περὶ τὸ Καύκασον ὄρος. χρυσοφοροῦσι δ᾽ ἐκ τοῦ Καυκάσου πηγαὶ πολλαὶ ψῆγμα ἀφανές: καὶ οἱ περίοικοι κῴδια τιθέντες ἐς τὸ ῥεῦμα βαθύμαλλα, τὸ ψῆγμα ἐνισχόμενον αὐτοῖς ἐκλέγουσιν. καὶ τοιοῦτον ἦν ἴσως καὶ τὸ χρυσόμαλλον Αἰήτου δέρος. τὸν οὖν Πομπήιον ἐπὶ τῇ ἱστορίᾳ ἀνιόντα οἱ μὲν ἄλλοι παρέπεμπον, ὅσα ἔθνη γείτονα: Ὀροίζης δ᾽ ὁ τῶν Ἀλβανῶν βασιλεὺς καὶ Ἀρτώκης ὁ Ἰβήρων ἑπτὰ μυριάσιν ἐλόχων ἀμφὶ τὸν Κύρτον ποταμόν, ὃς δώδεκα στόμασι πλωτοῖς ἐς τὴν Κασπίαν θάλασσαν ἐρεύγεται, πολλῶν ἐς αὐτὸν ἐμβαλόντων ποταμῶν, καὶ μεγίστου πάντων Ἀράξου. αἰσθόμενος δὲ τῆς ἐνέδρας ὁ Πομπήιος τὸν ποταμὸν ἐζεύγνυ, καὶ τοὺς βαρβάρους συνελάσας ἐς λόχμην βαθεῖαν ῾ὑλομαχῆσαι δ᾽ εἰσὶ δεινοί, κρυπτόμενοί τε καὶ ἐπιόντες ἀφανῶς᾿ αὐτῇ λόχμῃ τὸν στρατὸν περιστήσας ἐνέπρησε, καὶ τοὺς ἐκφεύγοντας ἐδίωκεν, ἕως ἅπαντες ὅμηρά τε καὶ δῶρα ἤνεγκαν. καὶ ἐθριάμβευσεν ἐς Ῥώμην καὶ ἀπὸ τῶνδε. πολλαὶ δὲ ἔν τε τοῖς ὁμήροις καὶ τοῖς αἰχμαλώτοις ηὑρέθησαν γυναῖκες, οὐ μείονα τῶν ἀνδρῶν τραύματα ἔχουσαι: καὶ ἐδόκουν Ἀμαζόνες εἶναι, εἴτε τι ἔθνος ἐστὶν αὐτοῖς γειτονεῦον αἱ Ἀμαζόνες, ἐπίκλητοι τότε ἐς συμμαχίαν γενόμεναι, εἴτε τινὰς πολεμικὰς ὅλως γυναῖκας οἱ τῇδε βάρβαροι καλοῦσιν Ἀμαζόνας.
Übersetzungen
[103] Pompey pursued Mithridates in his flight as far as Colchis, but he thought that his foe would never get around to Pontus or to the sea of Azov, or undertake anything great even if he should escape. He advanced to Colchis in order to gain knowledge of the country visited by the Argonauts, Castor and Pollux, and Hercules, and especially he desired to see the place where they say that Prometheus was fastened to Mount Caucasus. Many streams issue from Caucasus bearing gold-dust so fine as to be invisible. The inhabitants put sheepskins with shaggy fleece into the stream and thus collect the floating particles. Perhaps the golden fleece of Ætes was of this kind. All the neighboring tribes accompanied Pompey on his exploring expedition. Only Orœses, king of the Albanians, and Artoces king of the Iberians, placed 70,000 men in ambush for him at the river Cyrtus, which empties into the Caspian sea by twelve navigable mouths, receiving the waters of several large streams, the greatest of which is the Araxes. Pompey, gaining knowledge of the ambush, bridged the river and drove the barbarians into a dense forest. These people are terrible forest fighters, hiding in the woods and darting out unexpectedly. Pompey surrounded this forest with his army, set it on fire, and pursued the fugitives when they ran out, until they all surrendered and brought him hostages and presents. Pompey was afterward awarded one of his triumphs at Rome for these exploits. Among the hostages and prisoners many women were found, who had suffered wounds no less than the men. These were supposed to be Amazons, but whether the Amazons are a neighboring nation, who were called to their aid at that time, or whether certain warlike women are called Amazons by the barbarians there, is not known.
 
#4
Quellenangabe
App. Mithr. 117.
Quellentext
[117] αὐτοῦ δὲ τοῦ Πομπηίου προῆγον ὅσοι τῶν πεπολεμημένων βασιλέων ἡγεμόνες ἢ παῖδες ἢ στρατηγοὶ ἦσαν, οἱ μὲν αἰχμάλωτοι ὄντες οἱ δὲ ἐς ὁμηρείαν δεδομένοι, τριακόσιοι μάλιστα καὶ εἴκοσι καὶ τέσσαρες. ἔνθα δὴ καὶ ὁ Τιγράνους ἦν παῖς Τιγράνης, καὶ πέντε Μιθριδάτου, Ἀρταφέρνης τε καὶ Κῦρος καὶ Ὀξάθρης καὶ Δαρεῖος καὶ Ξέρξης, καὶ θυγατέρες Ὀρσάβαρίς τε καὶ Εὐπάτρα. παρήγετο δὲ καὶ ὁ Κόλχων σκηπτοῦχος Ὀλθάκης, καὶ Ἰουδαίων βασιλεὺς Ἀριστόβουλος, καὶ οἱ Κιλίκων τύραννοι, καὶ Σκυθῶν βασίλειοι γυναῖκες, καὶ ἡγεμόνες τρεῖς Ἰβήρων καὶ Ἀλβανῶν δύο, καὶ Μένανδρος ὁ Λαοδικεύς, ἵππαρχος τοῦ Μιθριδάτου γενόμενος. τῶν δὲ οὐκ ἀφικομένων εἰκόνες παρεφέροντο, Τιγράνους καὶ Μιθριδάτου, μαχομένων τε καὶ νικωμένων καὶ φευγόντων. Μιθριδάτου δὲ καὶ ἡ πολιορκία, καὶ ἡ νὺξ ὅτε ἔφευγεν, εἴκαστο, καὶ ἡ σιωπή. ἐπὶ τέλει δὲ ἐδείχθη καὶ ὡς ἀπέθανεν αἵ τε παρθένοι αἱ συναποθανεῖν αὐτῷ ἑλόμεναι παρεζωγράφηντο, καὶ τῶν προαποθανόντων υἱέων καὶ θυγατέρων ἦσαν γραφαί, θεῶν τε βαρβαρικῶν εἰκόνες καὶ κόσμοι πάτριοι. παρεφέρετο δὲ καὶ πίναξ ἐγγεγραμμένων τῶνδε: ‘νῆες ἑάλωσαν χαλκέμβολοι ὀκτακόσιαι: πόλεις ἐκτίσθησαν Καππαδοκῶν ὀκτώ, Κιλίκων δὲ καὶ κοίλης Συρίας εἴκοσι, Παλαιστίνης δὲ ἡ νῦν Σελευκίς: βασιλεῖς ἐνικήθησαν Τιγράνης Ἀρμένιος, Ἀρτώκης Ἴβηρ, Ὀροίζης Ἀλβανός, Δαρεῖος Μῆδος, Ἀρέτας Ναβαταῖος, Ἀντίοχος Κομμαγηνός.’ τοσαῦτα μὲν ἐδήλου τὸ διάγραμμα, αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ Πομπήιος ἐπὶ ἅρματος ἦν, καὶ τοῦδε λιθοκολλήτου, χλαμύδα ἔχων, ὥς φασιν, Ἀλεξάνδρου τοῦ Μακεδόνος, εἴ τῳ πίστον ἐστιν: ἔοικε δ᾽ αὐτὴν εὑρεῖν ἐν Μιθριδάτου, Κῴων παρὰ Κλεοπάτρας λαβόντων. εἵποντο δὲ αὐτῷ μετὰ τὸ ἅρμα οἱ συστρατευσάμενοι τῶν ἡγεμόνων, οἱ μὲν ἐπὶ ἵππων οἱ δὲ πεζοί. παρελθὼν δ᾽ ἐς τὸ Καπιτώλιον οὐδένα τῶν αἰχμαλώτων ἔκτεινεν ὡς ἕτεροι τῶν θριάμβους παραγόντων, ἀλλ᾽ ἐς τὰς πατρίδας ἔπεμψε δημοσίοις δαπανήμασι, χωρὶς τῶν βασιλικῶν. καὶ τούτων μόνος Ἀριστόβουλος εὐθὺς ἀνῃρέθη, καὶ Τιγράνης ὕστερον. ὁ μὲν δὴ θρίαμβος ἦν τοιόσδε.
Übersetzungen
[117] Before Pompey himself were led the satraps, sons, and generals of the kings against whom he had fought, who were present (some having been captured and others given as hostages) to the number of 324. Among them were Tigranes, the son of Tigranes, and five sons of Mithridates, namely, Artaphernes, Cyrus, Oxathres, Darius, and Xerxes, also his daughters, Orsabaris and Eupatra. Olthaces, chief of the Colchians, was also led in the procession, and Aristobulus, king of the Jews, the tyrants of the Cilicians, and the female rulers of the Scythians, three chiefs of the Iberians, two of the Albanians, and Menander the Laodicean, who had been chief of cavalry to Mithridates. There were carried in the procession images of those who were not present, of Tigranes and of Mithridates, representing them as fighting, as vanquished, and as fleeing. Even the besieging of Mithridates and his silent flight by night were represented. Finally it was shown how he died, and the daughters who perished with him were pictured also, and there were figures of the sons and daughters who died before him, and images of the barbarian gods decked out in the fashion of their countries. A tablet was borne also with this inscription: "Ships with brazen beaks captured, 800; cities founded in Cappadocia, 8; in Cilicia and Cœle-Syria, 20; in Palestine the one which is now Seleucis. Kings conquered: Tigranes the Armenian, Artoces the Iberian, Orœzes the Albanian, Darius the Mede, Aretas the Nabatæan, Antiochus of Commagene." These were the facts recorded on the inscription. Pompey himself was borne in a chariot studded with gems, wearing, it was said, a cloak of Alexander the Great, if any one can believe that. This was supposed to have been found among the possessions of Mithridates that the inhabitants of Cos had received from Cleopatra. His chariot was followed by the officers who had shared the campaigns with him, some on horseback and others on foot. When he arrived at the Capitol he did not put any of the prisoners to death as had been the custom at other triumphs, but sent them all home at the public expense, except the kings. Of these Aristobulus alone was shortly put to death and Tigranes somewhat later. Such was the character of Pompey's triumph.
 
#5
Quellenangabe
Plut. Pomp. 45.4.
Quellentext
[4] αἰχμάλωτοι δ᾽ ἐπομπεύθησαν, ἄνευ τῶν ἀρχιπειρατῶν, υἱὸς Τιγράνου τοῦ Ἀρμενίου μετὰ γυναικὸς καὶ θυγατρός, αὐτοῦ τε Τιγράνου τοῦ βασιλέως γυνὴ Ζωσίμη, καὶ βασιλεὺς Ἰουδαίων Ἀριστόβουλος, Μιθριδάτου δὲ ἀδελφὴ καὶ πέντε τέκνα, καὶ Σκυθίδες γυναῖκες, Ἀλβανῶν δὲ καὶ Ἰβήρων ὅμηροι καὶ τοῦ Κομμαγηνῶν βασιλέως, καὶ τρόπαια πάμπολλα καὶ ταῖς μάχαις ἰσάριθμα [p. 232] πάσαις ἃς ἢ αὐτὸς ἢ διὰ τῶν στρατηγῶν ἐνίκησε.
Übersetzungen
[4] The captives led in triumph, besides the chief pirates, were the son of Tigranes the Armenian with his wife and daughter, Zosime, a wife of King Tigranes himself, Aristobulus, king of the Jews, a sister and five children of Mithridates, Scythian women, and hostages given by the Iberians, by the Albanians, and by the king of Commagene; there were also very many trophies, equal in number to all the battles in which Pompey had been victorious either in person or in the persons of his lieutenants.
Literatur (Auswahl)
Walker, Hostages, S. 236, Case-Nr. 186.
Dreher, Martin; Pompeius und die kaukasischen Völker: Kolcher, Iberer, Albaner, in: Historia 45, 1996, S. 188-207.
Akteur
 
#1
Name, Titel/Rang
Artokes, König der Iberer
Rolle
Vertragspartner
Zugehörigkeit
Iberer
 
#2
Name, Titel/Rang
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus
Rolle
Vertragspartner
Zugehörigkeit
Rom
Religiöse Konstellation
(Keine Auswahl)
Art der Übereinkunft
Unterwerfung
Weitere Sicherheitsinstrumente
Verweise auf andere Fälle
-65 Geiselstellung an Feldherr Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus durch den albanischen König Orodes
Befristung
Nein
Personenangaben zu den Geiseln
 
#1
Name, Titel
Kinder des Artokes
Zugehörigkeit
Iberer
Geschlecht
(Keine Auswahl)
Antritt der Vergeiselung
ja
Aufenthaltsort der Geiseln
Rom
Schicksal der Geiseln
Terminus
Terminus 'Übereinkunft'
ὁμολογήσαντος / συνηλλάγη