Geiselstellungen von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit

639 Dokumente in 'Geiselstellungen von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit'
Name
 
-0070 Geiselstellung an Rom durch Kreta
Name
-0070 Geiselstellung an Rom durch Kreta
Vorausgegangener Konflikt
3. Mithridatischer Krieg
Datum/Zeitangabe
-70
Inhalt/Kommentar
Nachdem M. Antonius Creticus offenbar eine schwere Niederlage gegen die Kreter erlitten und sich mit einem wenig schmeichelhaften Vertrag aus der Affäre gezogen hatte, hatte der Senat einer Gesandtschaft von der Insel, die um Erneuerung dieses Abkommens ersuchte, die Stellung von 300 Geiseln, Auslieferung der Anführer sowie aller größeren Schiffe und einen hohen Tribut auferlegen wollen. Angesichts ihres Sieges waren die Kreter natürlich nicht bereit diese Konditionen eines Unterlegenen anzunehmen. Q. Caecilius Metellus wurde daraufhin mit dem kretischen Krieg betraut und ging mit aller Härte vor; von einer deditio an den neuen Feldherren erhoffte man sich nun keine Schonung mehr. Daher versuchten die Kreter es bei Pompeius, der eine sanftere Linie vertrat. Er begnügte sich dann auch mit Geiseln. Außerdem konnte er später die kretischen Anführer Panares und Lasthenes für seinen Triumph reklamieren, indem er einen der Tribunen überzeugte, sie nicht im Triumph des Metellus mitmarschieren zu lassen, da sich die Kreter ihm ergeben hätten. Mit der Einrichtung der Provinz Kreta durch Metellus hatten sich die Punkte Tribut und Flotte erledigt. Es ist vorstellbar, dass damit auch die Geiseln, die ja ihren Sinn verloren hatten, freigelassen worden waren, wenn es denn überhaupt je zur Stellung derselben gekommen war.
Quellenangabe
 
#1
Quellenangabe
Diod. 40.1.2-3.
Quellentext
[2] εἰσαχθέντες δὲ εἰς τὴν σύγκλητον καὶ περί τε τῶν ἐγκλημάτων ἐμφρόνως ἀπολογησάμενοι τάς τε ἰδίας εὐεργεσίας καὶ συμμαχίας πρὸς τὴν ἡγεμονίαν ἀκριβῶς διελθόντες, ἠξίουν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν προγεγενημένην εὔνοιάν τε καὶ συμμαχίαν ἀποκαταστῆναι. ἡ δὲ σύγκλητος ἀσμένως τοὺς λόγους προσδεξαμένη δόγμα ἐπεβάλετο κυροῦν δι' οὗ τῶν ἐγκλημάτων τοὺς Κρῆτας ἀπολύουσα φίλους καὶ συμμάχους τῆς ἡγεμονίας ἀνηγόρευεν ἄκυρον δὲ τὸ δόγμα ἐποίησε Λέντλος ὁ ἐπικαλούμενος Σπινθήρ. οἱ δὲ Κρῆτες ἀπηλλάγησαν. [3] Ἡ δὲ σύγκλητος, περὶ τῶν Κρητῶν πολλάκις λόγου γενομένου ὅτι κοινωνοῦσι τῆς λῃστείας τοῖς πειραταῖς, δόγμα ἔγραψεν ὅπως οἱ Κρῆτες πάντα τὰ πλοῖα ἕως τετρασκάλμου ἀναπέμψωσιν εἰς Ῥώμην καὶ τριακοσίους ὁμήρους δῶσι τοὺς ἐπιφανεστάτους, ἐκπέμψωσι δὲ καὶ Λασθένην καὶ Πανάρην, κοινῇ δὲ πάντες ἐκτίσωσιν ἀργυρίου τάλαντα τετρακισχίλια. οἱ δὲ Κρῆτες πυθόμενοι τὰ δεδογμένα τῇ συγκλήτῳ περὶ τῶν προσηγγελμένων ἐβουλεύοντο. καὶ οἱ μὲν φρονήσει διαφέροντες ἔφρασαν δεῖν πάντα ποιεῖν τὰ προσταττόμενα, οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν Λασθένην, τοῖς ἐγκλήμασιν ὄντες ἔνοχοι καὶ φοβούμενοι μὴ ἀναπεμφθέντες εἰς τὴν Ῥώμην τιμωρίας τύχωσιν, ἀνέσειον τὰ πλήθη παρακαλοῦντες τὴν ἐξ αἰῶνος παραδεδομένην ἐλευθερίαν διαφυλάττειν.
Übersetzungen
[2] When they were introduced into the senate, they made their defence against the matters objected against them with great prudence; accurately setting forth their good services, and their support for Roman rule, they requested that they might be restored to their former friendship and alliance. The senate, pleased with what they said, issued a decree, by which they not only acquitted the Cretans of the crimes laid against them, but declared them confederates and friends of the state. But Lentulus, surnamed Spinther, vetoed the decree; and the Cretans then departed. [3] The senate were told on many occasions that the Cretans were joining with the pirates, and sharing in their robberies; and therefore they decreed that the Cretans should surrender all their ships to Rome, even down to a skiff of four oars; and provide three hundred eminent hostages; and send away Lasthenes and Panares; and jointly pay four thousand talents of silver. The Cretans, hearing what was decreed, went into a consultation about these commands imposed upon them. The more prudent amongst them advised that they should comply with all the instructions; but Lasthenes and his associates, fearing that they would be summoned to Rome, where they would be punished for the offences that they had committed, stirred up the people and urged them to maintain those liberties that they had enjoyed ever since time immemorial.
 
#2
Quellenangabe
Cic. de imp. Cn. Pompei 12.35
Quellentext
Idem Cretensibus, cum ad eum usque in Pamphyliam legatos deprecatoresque misissent, spem deditionis non ademit obsidesque imperavit.
Übersetzungen
Also, when the Cretans had sent ambassadors to implore his mercy even into Pamphylia to him, he did not deny them hopes of being allowed to surrender, and he exacted hostages from them.
 
#3
Quellenangabe
Cass. Dio. 30-35.
Quellentext
[30-35.111.1] ὅτι τῶν Κρητῶν πρεσβευσαμένων πρὸς τοὺς Ῥωμαίους, καὶ ἐλπιζόντων τάς τε παλαιὰς σπονδὰς ἀνανεώσεσθαι 1 καὶ προσέτι καὶ εὐεργεσίαν τῆς τοῦ ταμίου τῶν τε συστρατιωτῶν αὐτοῦ 2 σωτηρίας εὑρήσεσθαι, οὗτοι ὀργὴν μᾶλλον ὅτι μὴ ἑάλωσαν λαβόντες ἢ χάριν αὐτοῖς ὅτι μὴ ἐκείνους ἔφθειραν γνόντες, οὔτ᾽ ἄλλως μέτριόν τι ἀπεκρίναντο, καὶ τοὺς αἰχμαλώτους τούς τε αὐτομόλους [2] ἅπαντας παρ᾽ αὐτῶν ἀπῄτησαν. καὶ ὁμήρους χρήματά τε πολλὰ αἰτήσαντες, τάς τε ναῦς τὰς μείζους καὶ τοὺς ἄνδρας τοὺς κορυφαίους ἐξαιτήσαντες, οὐκ ἀνέμειναν τὴν οἴκοθεν αὐτῶν ἀπόκρισιν, ἀλλὰ τῶν ὑπάτων αὐτίκα τὸν ἕτερον ταῦτά τε ληψόμενον καὶ πολεμήσοντά σφισιν, ἂν μὴ [...].
Übersetzungen
The Cretans sent an embassy to the Romans, hoping to renew the old treaty and furthermore to obtain some kindness in return for saving the quaestor and his soldiers. But the Romans, possessed rather with anger at their failure to subdue the Cretans than with gratitude to them for not destroying their men, returned no mild answer, but among other things demanded back from them all the captives and deserters. They also demanded hostages and large sums of money, required the larger ships and the chief men to be given up, and would not wait for an answer from the envoys' country, but sent out one of the consuls immediatly to take over the things surrendered and to make war upon them if they failed to give them up - as proved to be the case.
Hyperlink zur Quelle
www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A2008.01.0593%3Abook%3D30-35%3Achapter%3D111%3Asection%3D1
 
#4
Quellenangabe
App. Sic. 6.1.
Quellentext
ὅτι Κρήτη ἐξ ἀρχῆς εὐνοϊκῶς ἔχειν ἐδόκει Μιθριδάτῃ βασιλεύοντι Πόντου, καὶ αὐτῷ μισθοφορῆσαι πολεμοῦντι Ῥωμαίοις ἐλέγετο. ἔδοξε δὲ καὶ τοῖς πλεύσασι τότε λῃσταῖς ἐς χάριν τοῦ Μιθριδάτου συλλαβεῖν καὶ συμμαχῆσαι σαφῶς διωκομένοις ὑπὸ Μάρκου Ἀντωνίου. πρεσβευσαμένου δὲ τοῦ Ἀντωνίου πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὑπεριδεῖν καὶ ὑπερηφάνως ἀποκρίνασθαι. καὶ πολεμῆσαι μὲν αὐτοῖς εὐθὺς ἐπὶ τῷδε Ἀντώνιος, καὶ οὐ πρᾶξαι καλῶς, χρηματίσαι δ᾽ ὅμως διὰ τὴν πρᾶξιν Κρητικός. καὶ ἦν ὅδε πατὴρ Μάρκου Ἀντωνίου τοῦ πολεμήσαντος ὕστερον Καίσαρι τῷ κληθέντι Σεβαστῷ περὶ Ἄκτιον. ψηφισαμένων δὲ Ῥωμαίων Κρησὶ πολεμεῖν διὰ τάδε, οἱ Κρῆτες ἐπρέσβευσαν ἐς Ῥώμην περὶ διαλλαγῶν. οἱ δὲ αὐτοὺς ἐκέλευον ἐκδοῦναί τε αὐτοῖς Λασθένη τὸν πολεμήσαντα Ἀντωνίῳ, καὶ τὰ σκάφη τὰ λῃστικὰ πάντα παραδοῦναι, καὶ ὅσα Ῥωμαίων εἶχον αἰχμάλωτα, καὶ ὅμηρα τριακόσια καὶ ἀργυρίου τάλαντα τετρακισχίλια.
Übersetzungen
The island of Crete seemed to be favorably disposed towards Mithridates, king of Pontus, from the beginning, and it was said that they furnished him mercenaries when he was at war with the Romans. It is believed also that they recommended to the favor of Mithridates the pirates who then infested the sea, and openly assisted them when they were pursued by Marcus Antonius. When Antonius sent legates to them on this subject, they made light of the matter and gave him a disdainful answer. Antonius forthwith made war against them, and although he did not accomplish much, he gained the title of Creticus for his work. He was the father of the Mark Antony who, at a later period, fought against Octavius Cæsar at Actium. When the Romans declared war against the Cretans, on account of these things, the latter sent an embassy to Rome to treat for peace. The Romans ordered them to surrender Lasthenes, the author of the war against Antonius, and to deliver up all their pirate ships and all the Roman prisoners in their hands, together with 300 hostages, and to pay 4000 talents of silver.
Literatur (Auswahl)
Walker, Hostages, Case-Nr. 184.
Akteur
 
#1
Name, Titel/Rang
Rom
Rolle
Vertragspartner
 
#2
Name, Titel/Rang
Kreta
Rolle
Vertragspartner
Religiöse Konstellation
(Keine Auswahl)
Art der Übereinkunft
Unterwerfung
Ort der Geiselstellung
Kreta
Geltungsbereich
Kreta
Weitere Sicherheitsinstrumente
Befristung
Nein
Anzahl der Geiseln
300
Personenangaben zu den Geiseln
 
#1
Geschlecht
(Keine Auswahl)
Antritt der Vergeiselung
unbekannt
Schicksal der Geiseln
Terminus
Terminus 'Übereinkunft'
σπονδὰς spondas deditio