Geiselstellungen von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit

639 Dokumente in 'Geiselstellungen von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit'
Name
 
-0025 Geiselstellung an Rom durch den Partherkönig Tiridates II.
Name
-0025 Geiselstellung an Rom durch den Partherkönig Tiridates II.
Datum/Zeitangabe
-25
Inhalt/Kommentar
Justin berichtet, der von Phraates IV. vertriebene Tiridates habe auf der Flucht den jüngsten Sohn des Königs mitgenommen und ihn in Spanien Augustus als Geisel übergeben wollen. Die Angabe in den Res Gestae, dass der parthische Prinz Phraates, Sohn des Phraates von sich aus Zuflucht bei Augustus gesucht hatte, bezieht sich wohl auf das Jahr 4/5 n. Chr., als Phraates V. vertrieben worden war und in Rom Zuflucht suchte; dass Tiridates bei seiner Flucht nach Rom noch einen parthischen Prinzen mitbrachte, wird in den Res Gestae nicht erwähnt. Cassius Dio bleibt vom Verständnis her zweideutig, was sich in den modernen Übersetzungen wiederspiegel: Im Englischen von Earnest Gray bleibt wie im Griechischen offen, ob Phraates seinen Sohn selber übergeben hatte, oder ob Tiridates ihn Augustus zugespielt hatte. Im Deutschen von Otto Veh zu 53.33.2 ist es ausdrücklich der König, der den Sohn übergeben hatte. Das Französische von Freyburger-Galland zu 51.183. lässt Tiridates als den Überbringer der Geisel erscheinen.
20 v. Chr. wurde der Sohn Phraates' IV. angeblich im Tausch gegen die römischen Gefangenen und die Feldzeichen, welche in der Schlacht bei Carrhae in die Gewalt der Parther gelangt waren, freigelassen. Laut Justin wird der Partherprinz von Augustus ohne jede Forderung freigelassen. Bei Cassius Dio sind die genauen Umstände der Übergabe des Jungen durch Tiridates an Augustus offen. Man kann in diesem Zusammenhang nicht von einer formalen Geiselstellung sprechen. Dementsprechend lässt Augustus den jungen Phraates wieder frei. Dass Justin trotzdem den Begriff "obses" verwendet kann darauf zurückgeführt werden, dass er damit die Sichtweise des Tiridates ausdrückt; mit der Freilassung des Jungen durch Augustus gibt er aber zu erkennen, dass diese gewaltsame Vergeiselung nicht erwünscht war.
Quellenangabe
 
#1
Quellenangabe
Cass. Dio. 51.18.3.
Quellentext
ἐν τούτῳ μαχόμενοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. τότε δὲ ἐπειδὴ ὅ τε Ἀντώνιος ἐτελεύτησε, καὶ ἐκείνων ὁ μὲν Τιριδάτης ἡττηθεὶς ἐς τὴν Συρίαν κατέφυγεν, ὁ δὲ Φραάτης κρατήσας πρέσβεις ἔπεμψε, τούτοις τε φιλικῶς ἐχρημάτισε, καὶ τῷ Τιριδάτῃ βοηθήσειν μὲν οὐχ ὑπέσχετο διαιτᾶσθαι δὲ ἐν τῇ Συρίᾳ ἐπέτρεψεν, υἱόν τέ τινα τοῦ Φραάτου ἐν εὐεργεσίας μέρει παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ λαβὼν ἔς τε τὴν Ῥώμην ἀνήγαγε καὶ ἐν ὁμηρείᾳ ἐποιήσατο.
Übersetzungen
[51.18.3.] But now that Antony was dead and of the two combatants Tiridates, defeated, had taken refuge in Syria, and Phraates, victorious, had sent envoys, he entered into friendly negotiations with the latter; and, without promising to aid Tiridates, he permitted him to live in Syria. He received from Phraates one of his sons by way of conferring a favour upon him, and taking him to Rome, kept him as a hostage.


 
#2
Quellenangabe
Cass. Dio. 53.33.1-2.
Quellentext
καί μοι δοκεῖ ταῦθ᾽ οὕτω τότε οὐκ ἐκ κολακείας ἀλλ᾽ ἐπ᾽ ἀληθείας τιμηθεὶς λαβεῖν. τά τε γὰρ ἄλλα ὡς ἐλευθέροις σφίσι προσεφέρετο, καὶ ἐπειδὴ ὁ μὲν Τιριδάτης 1 αὐτός, παρὰ δὲ δὴ τοῦ Φραάτου πρέσβεις, ἐφ᾽ οἷς ἀντενεκάλουν ἀλλήλοις ἀφίκοντο, ἐς τὴν βουλὴν αὐτοὺς ἐσήγαγε, [2] καὶ μετὰ τοῦτ᾽ ἐπιτραπεὶς παρ᾽ αὐτῆς τὴν διάγνωσιν [p. 278] τὸν μὲν Τιριδάτην τῷ Φραάτῃ οὐκ ἐξέδωκεν, τὸν δ᾽ υἱὸν αὐτῷ, ὃν πρότερον παρ᾽ ἐκείνου λαβὼν εἶχεν, ἀπέπεμψεν ἐπὶ τῷ τούς τε αἰχμαλώτους καὶ τὰ σημεῖα τὰ στρατιωτικὰ τὰ ἔν τε τῇ τοῦ Κράσσου καὶ ἐν τῇ τοῦ Ἀντωνίου συμφορᾷ ἁλόντα κομίσασθαι.
Übersetzungen
And it seems to me that he then acquired these privileges as related, not by way of flattery, but because he was truly honoured; for in most ways he comported himself toward the Romans as if they were free citizens. Thus, when Tiridates in person and envoys from Phraates came to settle their mutual recriminations, he brought them before the senate; [2] and afterwards, when the decision of the question had been referred to him by that body, he did not surrender Tiridates to Phraates, but sent back to the latter his son whom he had once received from him and was keeping, on condition that the captives and the military standards taken in the disasters of Crassus and of Antony should be returned.
 
#3
Quellenangabe
Res gestae div. Aug. = Mon. Anc. 32.
Quellentext
Ad me supplices confugerunt reges Parthorum Tiridates et postea Phrates regis Phratis filius; Medorum Artavasdes, Adiabenorum Artaxares, Britannorum Dumnobellaunus et Tincommius, Sugambrorum Maelo, Marcomanorum Sueborum […] rus. Ad me rex Parthorum Phrates Orodis filius filios suos nepotesque omnes misit in Italiam, non bellosuperatus, sed amicitiam nostram per liberorum suorum pignora petens. Plurimaeque aliae gentes expertae sunt p. R. fidem me principe, quibus antea cum populo Romanonullum extiterat legationum et amicitiae commercium.
Übersetzungen
[32] Kings of the Parthians, Tiridates, and later Phrates, the son of King Phrates, took refuge with me as suppliants; of the Medes, Artavasdes; of the Adiabeni, Artaxares; of the Britons, Dumnobellaunus and Tim . . . . . .; of the Sugambri, Maelo; of the Marcomanni and Suevi . . . . .rus. Phrates, son of Orodes, king of the Parthians, sent all his sons and grandsons to me in Italy, not because he had been conquered in war, but rather seeking our friendship by means of his own children as pledges. And a large number of other nations experienced the good faith of the Roman people during my principate who never before had had any interchange of embassies or of friendship with the Roman people.
 
#4
Quellenangabe
Justin 42.5.6-11.
Quellentext
[6-11] Hoc absente regem Parthi Tiridaten quendam constituerant, qui audito adventu Scytharum cum magna amicorum manu ad Caesarem in Hispania bellum tunc temporis gerentem profugit, obsidem Caesari minimum Phrahatis filium ferens, quem neglegentius custoditum rapuerat. Quo cognito Phrahates legatos statim ad Caesarem mittit, servum suum Tiridaten et filium remitti sibi postulat. Caesar et legatione Phrahatisaudita et Tiridatis postulatis cognitis (nam et ipse restitui in regnum desiderabat, iuris Romanorum futuram Parthiam adfirmans, si eius regnum muneris eorum fuisset) neque Tiridaten dediturum se Parthis dixitneque Tiridati auxilia daturum. Ne tamen per omnia nihil a Caesare obtentum videretur, et Phrahati filium sine pretio remisitet Tiridati, quoad manere apud Romanos vellet, opulentum sumptum praeberi iussit. Post haec finito Hispaniensi bello, cum in Syriam ad conponendum Orientis statum venisset, metum Phrahati incussit, ne bellum Parthiae vellet inferre. Itaque tota Parthia captivi ex Crassiano sive Antoni exercitu recollecti signaque cum his militaria Augusto remissa. Sed et filii nepotesque Phrahatis obsides Augusto dati, plusque Caesar magnitudine nominis sui fecit, quam armis facere aliusimperator potuisset.
Übersetzungen
Having then, for a long time, wearied the neighbouring people, and at last the Scythians, with entreaties for aid, he was at last restored to his throne by a powerful Scythian force. During his absence, the Parthians had made one Tiridates king, who, when he heard of the approach of the Scythians, fled with a great body of his partisans to Caesar, who was then carrying on war in Spain,8 taking with him, as a hostage for Caesar, the youngest son of Phraates, whom, being but negligently guarded, he had secretly carried off. Phraates, on hearing of his flight, immediately sent ambassadors to Caesar, requesting that “his slave Tiridates, and his son, should be restored to him.” Caesar, after listening to the embassy of Phraates, and deliberating on the application of Tiridates (for he also had asked to be restored to his throne, saying that “Parthia would be wholly in the power of the Romans, if he should hold the kingdom as a gift from them”), replied, that “he would neither give up Tiridates to the Parthians, nor give assistance to Tiridates against the Parthians.” That it might not appear, however, that nothing had been obtained from Caesar by all their applications, he sent back to Phraates his son without ransom, and ordered a handsome maintenance to be furnished to Tiridates, as long as he chose to continue among the Romans. Some time after, when Caesar had finished the Spanish war, and had proceeded to Syria to settle the affairs of the east, he caused some alarm to Phraates, who was afraid that he might contemplate an invasion of Parthia. Whatever prisoners, accordingly, remained of the army of Crassus or Antony throughout, Parthia, were collected together, and sent, with the military standards that had been taken, to Augustus. In addition to this, the sons and grandsons of Phraates were delivered to Augustus as hostages; and thus Caesar effected more by the power of his name, than any other general could have done by his arms.
Literatur (Auswahl)
Walker, Hostages, Case-Nr. 250.
Dabrowa, Edward; Les premiers “otages” parthes à Rome, in: Folia Orientalia 24, 1987, S. 65-71.
Ziegler, Die Beziehungen zwischen Rom und dem Partherreich, S. 45-56.
Akteur
 
#1
Name, Titel/Rang
Imperator Caesar Divi Filius / Octavian / Augustus
Rolle
Vertragspartner
Zugehörigkeit
Rom
Dynastie
julisch-claudische Dynastie
 
#2
Name, Titel/Rang
Phraates IV. / König der Parther
Rolle
(Keine Auswahl)
Zugehörigkeit
Partherreich
 
#3
Name, Titel/Rang
Tiridates II. / König der Parther
Rolle
(Keine Auswahl)
Zugehörigkeit
Partherreich
Religiöse Konstellation
(Keine Auswahl)
Art der Übereinkunft
(Keine Auswahl)
Ort der Geiselstellung
Spanien (?)
Akte symbolischer Kommunikation
Rückgabe von Feldzeichen
Weitere Sicherheitsinstrumente
Verweise auf andere Fälle
Nr. 116: -10 Geiselstellung an Rom durch den Partherkönig Phraates IV.
Befristung
Nein
Anzahl der Geiseln
1
Personenangaben zu den Geiseln
 
#1
Name, Titel
Sohn des Partherkönigs Phraates IV.
Zugehörigkeit
Partherreich
Geschlecht
männlich
Antritt der Vergeiselung
ja
Aufenthaltsort der Geiseln
Rom
Schicksal der Geiseln
Terminus