Geiselstellungen von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit

639 Dokumente in 'Geiselstellungen von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit'
Name
 
-0035 Geiselstellung an Rom durch die Bewohner von Siscia
Name
-0035 Geiselstellung an Rom durch die Bewohner von Siscia
Vorausgegangener Konflikt
Belagerung von Siscia (Provinz Pannonien)
Datum/Zeitangabe
-35
Inhalt/Kommentar
Segesta (appian) ist der ältere Name von Siscia (Cassius Dio). Die Stelle ist ein Beleg für die häufige Nutzlosigkeit von Geiselstellungen. Obwohl gerade Geiseln gegeben worden waren, wird der Kampf wieder aufgenommen. Aus Appian geht nicht klar hervor, ob die Geiseln gestellt worden sind. Ein Zusammenhang mit verschiedenen Parteien (prorömisch/antirömisch bzw. Führungsschicht/Volk) innerhalb der Stadt scheint zu bestehen. Nach der endgültigen Unterwerfung wird eine Besatzung eingesetzt und obwohl nicht mehr ausdrücklich erwähnt, dürften wohl auch erneut Geiseln gefordert worden sein, da dies zuvor auch geschehen war.
Quellenangabe
 
#1
Quellenangabe
Cass. Dio. 49.37.2,6.
Quellentext
[2] καὶ πάνθ᾽ ὅσα ἐδύνατο λείαν ἐποιεῖτο. πλησιάσαντος δ᾽ αὐτοῦ τῇ πόλει οἱ ἐπιχώριοι παραυτίκα μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν δυνατῶν ἀναπεισθέντες ὡμολόγησάν τε αὐτῷ καὶ ὁμήρους ἔδοσαν, μετὰ δὲ τοῦτο τάς τε πύλας ἀπέκλεισαν καὶ ἐς πολιορκίαν κατέστησαν. εἶχον μὲν γὰρ καὶ τείχη ἰσχυρά, τὸ δ᾽ ὅλον ποταμοῖς [...].
[6] καὶ γὰρ οἱ βάρβαροι μονόξυλα πλοῖα ἀντικατασκευάσαντες διεκινδύνευον, καὶ ἔν τε τῷ ποταμῷ ἄλλους τε συχνοὺς καὶ τὸν Μηνᾶν τὸν τοῦ Σέξτου ἐξελεύθερον ἀπέκτειναν, καὶ ἐν τῇ γῇ ἰσχυρῶς 1 αὐτὸν ἠμύνοντο, μέχρις οὗ τῶν συμμάχων τινὰς ἐνηδρεῦσθαί 2 τε καὶ ἐφθάρθαι ἐπύθοντο: τότε γὰρ ἀθυμήσαντες ἐνέδοσαν. καὶ οὕτως ἁλόντων ἐκείνων καὶ τὸ ἄλλο Παννονικὸν ὁμολογίᾳ προσηγάγετο.
Übersetzungen
[2] When he drew near the city, the natives for the moment listened to their leaders and made terms with him and gave hostages, but afterwards they shut their gates and underwent a siege. For while they possessed strong walls, yet they placed their whole confidence in two navigable rivers.
[6] For the barbarians prepared in turn some boats made of single logs, with which they risked a conflict; and thus on the river they killed Menas, the freedman of Sextus, besides many others, while on the land they vigorously repulsed the invader, until they ascertained that some of their allies had been ambushed and destroyed. Then they lost heart and yielded; and when they had been captured in this manner, the remainder of Pannonia was induced to capitulate.
Quellenart
Historia
 
#2
Quellenangabe
App. Ill. 22-24.
Quellentext
[22] ἐς δὲ τὴν Σεγεστικὴν γῆν οἱ Ῥωμαῖοι δὶς πρότερον ἐμβαλόντες οὔτε ὅμηρον οὔτε ἄλλο τι εἰλήφεσαν: ὅθεν ἦσαν ἐπὶ φρονήματος οἱ Σεγεστανοί. ὁ δὲ Καῖσαρ αὐτοῖς ἐπῄει διὰ τῆς Παιόνων γῆς, οὔπω Ῥωμαίοις οὐδὲ τῆσδε ὑπηκόου γενομένης. ὑλώδης δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἡ Παιόνων, καὶ ἐπιμήκης ἐξ Ἰαπόδων ἐπὶ Δαρδάνους. καὶ οὐ πόλεις ᾤκουν οἱ Παίονες οἵδε, ἀλλ᾽ ἀγροὺς ἢ κώμας κατὰ συγγένειαν: οὐδ᾽ ἐς βουλευτήρια κοινὰ συνῄεσαν, οὐδ᾽ ἄρχοντες αὐτοῖς ἦσαν ἐπὶ πᾶσιν. οἱ δ᾽ ἐν ἡλικίᾳ μάχης ἐς δέκα μυριάδας συνετέλουν. ἀλλ᾽ οὐδ᾽ οὗτοι συνῄεσαν ἀθρόοι δι᾽ ἀναρχίαν. προσιόντος δ᾽ αὐτοῖς τοῦ Καίσαρος, ἐς τὰς ὕλας ὑποφυγόντες τοὺς ἀποσκιδναμένους τῶν στρατιωτῶν ἀνῄρουν. ὁ δὲ Καῖσαρ ἕως μὲν ἤλπιζεν αὐτοὺς ἀφίξεσθαι πρὸς αὑτόν, οὔτε τὰς κώμας οὔτε τοὺς ἀγροὺς ἐλυμαίνετο, οὐκ ἀπαντώντων δὲ πάντα ἐνεπίμπρη καὶ ἔκειρεν ἐπὶ ἡμέρας ὀκτώ, ἐς ὃ διῆλθεν ἐς τὴν Σεγεστανῶν, καὶ τήνδε Παιόνων οὖσαν, ἐπὶ τοῦ Σάου ποταμοῦ, ἐν ᾧ καὶ πόλις ἔστιν ἐχυρά, τῷ τε ποταμῷ καὶ τάφρῳ μεγίστῃ διειλημμένη, διὸ καὶ μάλιστα αὐτῆς ἔχρῃζεν ὁ Καῖσαρ, ὡς ταμιείῳ χρησόμενος ἐς τὸν Δακῶν καὶ Βαστερνῶν πόλεμον, οἳ πέραν εἰσὶ τοῦ Ἴστρου, λεγομένου μὲν ἐνταῦθα Δανουβίου, γιγνομένου δὲ μετ᾽ ὀλίγον Ἴστρου. ἐμβάλλει δ᾽ ὁ Σάος ἐς τὸν Ἴστρον: καὶ αἱ νῆες ἐν τῷ Σάῳ Καίσαρι ἐγίγνοντο, αἳ ἐς τὸν Δανούβιον αὐτῷ τὴν ἀγορὰν διοίσειν ἔμελλον. [23] διὰ μὲν δὴ ταῦτα τῆς Σεγέστης ἔχρῃζεν ὁ Καῖσαρ: προσιόντι δὲ αὐτῷ οἱ Σεγεστανοὶ προσέπεμψαν, πυνθανόμενοι τίνος χρῄζει. ὁ δὲ φρουρὰν ἐσαγαγεῖν ἔφη, καὶ ὁμήρους ἑκατὸν λαβεῖν, ἵν᾽ ἀσφαλῶς ταμιείῳ τῇ πόλει χρῷτο ἐπὶ Δάκας. ᾔτει δὲ καὶ σῖτον, ὅσον δύναιντο φέρειν. ταῦθ᾽ οἱ μὲν πρωτεύοντες ἠξίουν δοῦναι: ὁ δὲ δῆμος ἐξαγριαίνων τὰ μὲν ὅμηρα διδόμενα περιεῖδεν, ὅτι ἴσως οὐ παρὰ σφῶν ἀλλὰ τῶν πρωτευόντων παῖδες ἦσαν, προσιούσης δὲ τῆς φρουρᾶς τὴν ὄψιν οὐκ ἐνεγκόντες ὁρμῇ μανιώδει τὰς πύλας αὖθις ἀπέκλειον καὶ αὑτοὺς τοῖς τείχεσιν ἐπέστησαν. ὁ οὖν Καῖσαρ τόν τε ποταμὸν ἐγεφύρου, καὶ χάρακας καὶ τάφρους πάντοθεν ἐποιεῖτο, ἀποτειχίσας δ᾽ αὐτοὺς δύο χώματα ἔχου. οἷς ἐπέδραμον μὲν οἱ Σεγεστανοὶ πολλάκις, οὐ δυνηθέντες δ᾽ ἑλεῖν λαμπάδας καὶ πῦρ πολὺ ἄνωθεν ἐπέβαλλον. προσιούσης δ᾽ αὐτοῖς Παιόνων ἑτέρων βοηθείας, ὁ Καῖσαρ ὑπαντήσας ἐνήδρευσεν αὐτήν: καὶ οἱ μὲν ἀνῃρέθησαν, οἱ δ᾽ ἔφυγον, καὶ οὐδεὶς ἔτι Παιόνων ἐβοήθει. [24] οἱ Σεγεστανοὶ δὲ πᾶσαν πολιορκίαν ὑποστάντες ἡμέρᾳ τριακοστῇ κατὰ κράτος ἐλήφθησαν, καὶ τότε πρῶτον ἤρξαντο ἱκετεύειν. καὶ αὐτοὺς ὁ Καῖσαρ ἐπαίνῳ τε τῆς ἀρετῆς καὶ ἐλέῳ τῆς ἱκεσίας οὔτε ἔκτεινεν οὔτε ἀνέστησεν, ἀλλὰ χρήμασιν ἐζημίωσε, καὶ τῆς πόλεως μέρος διατειχίσας ἐσήγαγεν ἐς αὐτὸ φρουρὰν πέντε καὶ εἴκοσι σπειρῶν. καὶ ὁ μὲν τάδ᾽ ἐργασάμενος ἐς Ῥώμην ἀνέζευξεν, ὡς ἦρος ἐπανήξων ἐς τὴν Ἰλλυρίδα. φήμης δ᾽ ἐπιδραμούσης ὅτι τὴν φρουρὰν οἱ Σεγεστανοὶ διέφθειραν, ἐξέθορε χειμῶνος. καὶ τὸ μὲν τέλος τῆς φήμης ψευδὲς ηὗρε, τὴν δὲ αἰτίαν ἀληθῆ: ἐγεγόνεσαν γὰρ ἐν κινδύνῳ, τῶν Σεγεστανῶν αὐτοὺς ἄφνω περιστάντων, καὶ πολλοὺς τὸ αἰφνίδιον ἀπωλωλέκει, τῆς δ᾽ ἐπιούσης προελθόντες ἐκράτουν τῶν Σεγεστανῶν. ὁ οὖν Καῖσαρ ἐπὶ Δαλμάτας μετῄει, γένος ἕτερον Ἰλλυριῶν, Ταυλαντίοις ὅμορον.
Übersetzungen
[22] At an earlier time the Romans twice attacked the country of the Segestani, but obtained no hostages nor anything else, for which reason the Segestani became very arrogant. Augustus advanced against them through the Pannonian territory, which was not yet under subjection to the Romans. Pannonia is a wooded country extending from the Iapydes to the Dardani. The inhabitants do not live in cities, but scattered through the country or in villages according to relationship. They have no common council and no rulers over the whole nation. They number 100,000 fighting men, but they do not assemble in one body, because they have no common government. When Augustus advanced against them they took to the woods, from which they darted out and slew the stragglers of the army. As long as Augustus hoped that they would surrender voluntarily he spared their fields and villages. As none of them came in he devastated the country with fire and sword for eight days, until he came to the Segestani. Theirs is also Pannonian territory, on the river Save, on which is situated a city strongly fortified by the river and by a very large ditch encircling it. For this reason Augustus greatly desired to possess it as a magazine convenient for a war against the Dacians and the Bastarnae on the other side of the Ister, which is there called the Danube, but a little lower down is called the Ister. The Save flows into it, and Augustus caused ships to be built in the latter stream to bring provisions to the Danube for him.
[23] For these reasons he desired to obtain possession of Segesta. As he was approaching, the Segestani sent to inquire what he wanted. He replied that he desired to station a garrison there and to have them give him a hundred hostages in order that he might use the town safely as a base of operations in his war against the Dacians. He also asked for as much food as they were able to supply. The chief men of the town acquiesced, but the common people were furious, yet consented to the giving of the hostages, perhaps because they were not their children, but those of the notables. When the garrison came up, however, they could not bear the sight of them, but shut the gates in a mad fury and stationed themselves on the walls. Thereupon Augustus bridged the river and surrounded the place with ditch and palisade, and, having blockaded them, raised two mounds. Upon these the Segestani made frequent assaults and, being unable to capture them, endeavored to destroy them with torches and fire thrown from above. When aid was sent to them by the other Pannonians Augustus met and ambuscaded this reinforcement, destroyed a part of their force, and put the rest to flight. After this they got no more help from the Pannonians.
[24] Thus the Segestani, after enduring all the evils of a siege, were taken by force on the thirtieth day, and then for the first time they began to beg. Augustus, admiring them for their bravery and yielding to their prayers, neither killed nor banished them, but contented himself with a fine. He caused a part of the city to be separated from the rest by a wall, and in this he placed a garrison of twenty-five cohorts. Having accomplished this he went back to Rome, intending to return to Illyria in the spring. But a rumor becoming current that the Segestani had massacred the garrison, he set forth hastily in the winter. However, he found that the rumor was false, yet not without cause. They had been in danger from a sudden uprising of the Segestani and had lost many men by reason of its unexpectedness, but on the next day they rallied and put down the insurgents. Augustus turned his forces to Dalmatia, another Illyrian country bordering on Taulantia.
Literatur (Auswahl)
Walker, Hostages, Case-Nr. 243 ; Nr. 245.
Kos, Sasel; Appian and Dio on the Illyrian wars of Octavian, in: Ziva Antika 47(1-2), 1997, S. 187-198.
Akteur
 
#1
Name, Titel/Rang
Imperator Caesar Divi Filius / Octavian / Augustus
Rolle
Vertragspartner
Zugehörigkeit
Rom
 
#2
Name, Titel/Rang
Bewohner von Siscia / Segesta
Rolle
Vertragspartner
Religiöse Konstellation
(Keine Auswahl)
Art der Übereinkunft
Unterwerfung
Ort der Geiselstellung
Siscia / Segesta
Geltungsbereich
Siscia / Segesta
Weitere Sicherheitsinstrumente
Befristung
Nein
Personenangaben zu den Geiseln
 
#1
Zugehörigkeit
Segesta / Siscia
Geschlecht
(Keine Auswahl)
Stand
τῶν πρωτευόντων παῖδες / Kinder der Führenden
Antritt der Vergeiselung
ja
Schicksal der Geiseln
Terminus
Semantisches Feld 'Sicherheit'
ἀσφαλῶς asphaleia
Terminus 'Übereinkunft'
ὡμολόγησάν (homologesan)